Paul Leventhal founded the Nuclear
Control Institute in 1981 and served as its President for 22 years prior
to becoming Founding President in June 2002. Before establishing NCI,
Mr. Leventhal held senior staff positions in the United States Senate on
nuclear power and proliferation issues. He now runs NCI as a Web-based
program and maintains a word-searchable electronic archive at
www.nci.org and a collection of NCI and Senate papers spanning more
than 30 years at the
National Security Archive.
He has prepared five books for the
Institute---Nuclear Terrorism: Defining the Threat (Pergamon-Brassey’s,
1986), Preventing Nuclear Terrorism (Lexington, 1987), The
Tritium Factor (with the American Academy of Arts and Sciences,
1989) Averting a Latin American Nuclear Arms Race (Macmillan,
1992), and Nuclear Power and the Spread of Nuclear Weapons (Brassey’s,
2002). He has lectured in a number of countries on nuclear issues,
including as Distinguished Visiting Fellow at Cambridge University's
Global Security Programme, 1991.
Mr. Leventhal organized the
Institute's International Task Force on Prevention of Nuclear Terrorism
(1986-87), its conference in South America on averting a nuclear arms
race between Argentina and Brazil (1989), a coalition of eminent U.S.
scientists and diplomats seeking a halt in further production of
nuclear-weapon materials (1989), and a working group of public interest
organizations in Washington on nuclear proliferation issues (1981-86).
He served as Special Counsel to the
Senate Government Operations Committee, chaired by Senator Abraham
Ribicoff (D-CT), l972-76, and as Staff Director of the Senate Nuclear
Regulation Subcommittee, chaired by Senator Gary Hart (D-CO),
l979-1981. He was responsible for the investigations and legislation
that resulted in enactment of two landmark nuclear laws---the Energy
Reorganization Act of 1974, fissioning the Atomic Energy Commission into
separate regulatory and promotional nuclear agencies, and the Nuclear
Non-Proliferation Act of 1978, establishing stricter controls on U.S.
nuclear trade to combat the spread of nuclear weapons.
The non-proliferation act’s
requirement that countries accept international inspections on all their
nuclear activities (“full-scope safeguards”) as a condition of receiving
U.S. nuclear assistance eventually was adopted as an international norm
by the Nuclear Suppliers Group.
He also served as co-director of
the bipartisan Senate Special Investigation of the Three Mile Island
Nuclear Accident, co-chaired by Senators Hart and Alan Simpson (R-WY),
1979-1980, and prepared the "lessons-learned" legislation enacted in
1980 to require preventive measures and emergency planning for future
Mr. Leventhal came to Washington in
1969 as Press Secretary to Senator Jacob K. Javits (R-NY) after a decade
of political and investigative reporting for the Cleveland Plain
Dealer, New York Post and Newsday. In 1970, he took a
leave from Javits’ staff to serve as campaign press secretary to Senator
Charles Goodell (R-NY). In l972, he served as Congressional
Correspondent for National Journal before returning to Capitol
Hill to pursue legislative and investigative responsibilities.
Mr. Leventhal was a Research Fellow
at Harvard University's Program for Science and International Affairs
and a Visiting Fellow at the Brookings Institution, 1976-1977,
concentrating on nuclear weapons proliferation under a grant from the
He served as Assistant
Administrator for Policy and Planning at the U.S. National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 1977-1978.
He holds a bachelor's degree in government, magna cum laude, from
Franklin and Marshall College. The college presented him its Alumni
Medal in 1988 for distinguished professional accomplishment and
contributions to society, and an honorary doctor of laws degree in 2001
prior to his delivering that year’s
commencement address. He holds a master's degree from the Columbia
University Graduate School of Journalism. He is married and has two
Sharon Tanzer is the Institute's vice president and a member of the Board
of Directors. She was co-editor of Averting a Nuclear Arms Race in Latin America
(Macmillan, 1991), the proceedings of the Institute's 1989 Montevideo conference. She was
rapporteur and editor of the Tritium Factor, (Nuclear Control
Institute/American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989), the proceedings of a 1988 nuclear
arms control workshop co-sponsored by NCI and the Academy. She was also project
coordinator for the Institute's International Task Force on Prevention of Nuclear
Terrorism. She has organized and participated in the Institute's meetings and briefings on
nuclear proliferation and nuclear terrorism issues in Europe, India, Japan, and Latin
Ms. Tanzer received her Bachelor of Arts degree in history, cum laude,
from Barnard College in 1962. She spent the following year as a Fulbright Fellow at the
University of Bordeaux, France, and then earned a master's degree in European history from
Stanford University in 1964.
Her responsibilities include the Institute's initiatives in Germany and on
EURATOM and matters relating to the transport of nuclear materials and nuclear waste.
is a senior policy analyst for the Institute, where
his work focuses on the U.S. program to phase out global commerce in
bomb-grade, highly enriched uranium. He previously served as the
Institute's issues director, and, in 1987, co-authored an NCI report
that disclosed plans to proceed with air shipments of plutonium to Japan
in the absence of a crashproof shipment cask, leading to cancellation of
Kuperman is also an Assistant Professor at the LBJ
School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. He is author
of one book, The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in
Rwanda (Brookings, 2001), as well as chapters in several other books,
including American Foreign Policy: Theoretical Essays (Longman,
2005), Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in American Foreign
Policy (McGraw-Hill/Dushkin, 2005), American Foreign Policy:
Cases and Choices (Foreign Affairs Books, 2003), and Nuclear
Power & the Spread of Nuclear Weapons (Brassey’s, 2002). His
articles have appeared in journals and newspapers including Foreign
Affairs, Political Science Quarterly, Security Studies, The New York
Times, The Washington Post, and The Wall Street Journal.
He holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from MIT, an
M.A. from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International
Studies (SAIS), and an A.B. from Harvard University. He has received
fellowships from Harvard University, MIT, the University of Southern
California, the U.S. Institute of Peace, the Brookings Institution, and
the Institute for the Study of World Politics.
Previously, he was chief of staff to Rep. James
Scheuer, legislative assistant to Speaker of the House Tom Foley, and
legislative director for Rep. Charles Schumer when the congressman
authored a U.S. law restricting exports of bomb-grade uranium.
Eldon V.C. Greenberg advises the Institute on legal
matters relating to U.S. nuclear non-proliferation law. He is a partner in the law firm of
Garvey Schubert & Barer. He has served as general counsel for the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration, deputy general counsel for the Agency for International
Development, and staff attorney for the Center for Law and Social Policy.
Mr. Greenberg's legal analysis of the U.S. nuclear cooperation agreement with
Japan provided the basis for challenges of the agreement by both foreign affairs
committees in Congress and by the Institute and resulted in "clarifications" of
the agreement by the Administration with respect to U.S. rights and obligations under the
Treaty. Mr. Greenberg also advises the Institute on nuclear export law and regulations. He
has intervened successfully on behalf of the Institute in a number of proceedings before
the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
The analyses by Mr. Greenberg of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the
U.S.-EURATOM agreement have laid the groundwork for the Institute's initiatives on these
matters. He will continue to play a key role in these and other legal aspects of the